As the name suggests the paper battery is a device behaves like a battery and also like a capacitor. Paper battery basis on the composition of nanotubes of carbon and paper (cellulose). We are in the world of limited resources and our electrical needs are more than resources. So batteries are the best solution but batteries consider as lavishness.

History of Paper Battery:

In August 2007, at the Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Dr. Robert Linhardt started a team. Dr.Omkaram Nalamasu and Dr.Pulickel Ajayan prepared a paper battery. In December 2009, at Stanford University, Yi Cuiand.

However, its researches team successfully conducted a prototype that provides 1.5 terminal voltages.  The Ki Bang Lee about the following activated paper batteries.

Furthermore, a simple and cheap construction process for paper batteries is compatible with existing plastic laminated technologies or plastic molding techniques. A paper battery has been tested and it can provide more than 1.5mw power.

How to construct this battery?

A plain design for paper battery consists of two sheets one paper sheet is for an anode and the second sheet is for a cathode. And these sheets are produced through cellulose nanofibers then burn with electrodes powered by nanotubes of carbon.  Further, these are linked with electrodes material which basis on lithium ions. As the battery charges and discharges. Thus electrons stream between the cathode lithium particles travels through the nanocellulose.

construction of paper battery

For the construction of this adjustable battery firstly homogenize cellulose of wood to produce with fibers. And these fibers have a diameter in nanometers and length in micrometer.

Afterward, by utilizing the principle of vacuum filtration nanocellulose has suspended in water at that point transform it into the paper. After that to make anode or cathode two paper sheets have used for this purpose.

One sheet covered one side with carbon nanotubes suspension which basis on water. And for the construction of cathode powered battery electrode materials. We can use like lithium iron phosphate and for anode lithium titanium oxide.

The nanocellulose sheet performs like a barrier behavior in a finished battery. For the final formation of a battery. Finally, these sheets put in a plastic wrap in such a way the electrode lawyers should be on the outer side and plunged with electrolyte.

The thickness of this batter is only 110µm without including packing. Relying upon the electric current this battery charge two times quicker than a regular battery. And can give more power for a particular time.


With other flexible batteries, the functionality of this battery sustains even after 50 cycles of charging. But as a result of other flexible batteries loss their functionality.

Why paper batteries are important?

The battery timing of paper batteries is long lasting. Such type of batteries is non-toxic because there are no harmful chemical reactions.

The flexibility of these batteries is high and can fold or cut without any effect. The main factor is that the formation of these battery materials is such as cellulose and carbon nanotubes, with high proportional strength.

The flexibility of these batteries can disposable because they are made up of cells that are bio-dynamics and non-toxic. These are also used in heat and cold use in extreme weather conditions.

This is because the electrolyte is not included in the water that runs the battery from 73 to 149 degrees Celsius. These batteries use Carbon nanotubes which are the most effective conductors of electricity.

Paper batteries applications:

The paper’s battery can applicable where portable and sizes are important. Smart cards like modern day electronic equipment, digital watches require thin batteries that are endless and non-toxic.

One of the most real-time examples of computer wearable is Google Glass. It is usually a modest spectacle that has a look in the form of a pair of eyes and eyes of an optical head. And includes an optical display in which the user can use the smartphone.

For low power devices such as calculators, wristwatches and communication devices. Such as Bluetooth headphones, keypads, and mouse, etc. We can use it.

Advantages of Paper Battery:

  • The main advantage of paper batteries is that in its performance. It can be turned, cut or shaped for any applications without any damage.
  • If the battery is cut in half, the energy which is produced by them is split into half.
  • Assembling multiple paper batteries, as a result, increases its power output.
  • However, a sample paper can generate approximately 2.5-volt of electricity.
  • These batteries are also friendly. The presence of cellulose and paper batteries is a lack of toxic substances. In comparison with conventional lithium-ion batteries, the device makes environmentally friendly.
  • Due to its biocompatibility, our immune system can easily adapt it.
  • By using paper cycling techniques it can be used again.
  • These batteries are rechargeable.
  • It’s durable and runs in a wide range of temperatures.
  • There is no leakage problem because its design does not use any dripping fluid.
  • Due to fewer resistance features, it is not too much under extreme conditions.
  • A paper battery preparation is based on the desired size and shapes.
  • The output voltage is custom-made because the concentration of CNN (carbon nanoscope) may vary and can be changed/sliding.

Disadvantages of Paper Battery:

  • Paper battery’s essential element carbon nanotubes are very expensive.
  • Maybe it damages the lungs on inhaling.
  • The paper batteries can also generate e-wastage.

Paper batteries limitations:

The boundaries of the current paper batteries are:

  • The exclusive constructers: Carbon nanotubes constructors are used in numerous ways. To use chemical vapor depression, arc discharge, laser pollution and electrolysis which are still less effectual and exclusive.
  • Toxic: When humans point out to them, their interactions with the lungs may be microphages. Because there is a risk of human health because it is not digestive.
  • Shear Strength is low: Paper batteries can be thrown easily if appropriate due to lack of low embroidery power due to proper care.

Future of Paper Battery:

Scientists have produced small sizes of batteries compared to postal stamps, which can generate energy that is enough to light up the small bulb. In short for the future, the expected result is to produce paper batteries that are capable of providing energy to a car. Thus, the next generation is the source of power through electronic devices, medical devices, speed makers, hybrid vehicles, etc.